Doctor exams Asian newborn baby with stethoscope in the hospital

Children's Heart Health

Information for parents of children with pediatric heart conditions

Overview of congenital heart conditions

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a birth defect of the heart that’s present at birth. It happens when something in the heart or the connecting blood vessels doesn’t form properly as the fetus is growing and developing during pregnancy. Each year in the U.S., approximately 40,000 (1%) babies are born with CHD, with 1 in 4 born with a critical congenital heart defect.1 Increasingly, heart defects can be diagnosed early in pregnancy by routine ultrasound tests, around the fourth or fifth month. While CHD is common, not all cases are serious enough to require treatment. In cases where treatment is necessary, advances in medical technology and practice are making it possible for more patients than ever to not only survive into adulthood but to do so with a high quality of life.

The symptoms of the disease, how it progresses or develops over time, and the recommended treatment are specific to the type of CHD. But some of the most common problems are abnormal openings in the walls of the heart, irregular heart rhythms, and deterioration of the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure.


While we don't know which genes cause all forms of CHD, researchers continue to make progress in understanding the genetics involved. 

If you’re pregnant or plan to get pregnant, you can also decrease your risk of having a baby with a congenital heart defect by following a few common prenatal guidelines that include the following:

  • Avoiding drugs and alcohol, including prescription medication, until you check with your doctor first — and make sure your doctor knows you’re pregnant
  • Taking a blood test to check your immunity to German measles (rubella)
  • Controlling your blood sugar levels if you have diabetes

Not only will these precautions decrease your child’s risk of developing a congenital heart defect, but they will also keep you and your baby healthier and at less risk for other health problems.

doctor examines her young patient while her mother sits close by

Common heart conditions in children

Heart disease is a very broad term for many things that can go wrong with the heart — in both adults and children. Narrow the focus to children, and the term still encompasses many different types of problems that range from a condition that has no symptoms and is never diagnosed to a problem that is severe and potentially life-threatening.

If you’re looking for information about a specific disease and would like to know more about its symptoms, how the disease develops over time, and how it’s treated, the list below is a good place to start. Some of the most common conditions are listed as either congenital (present from birth) or acquired (developed after birth). Click on the name of any of these conditions to be directed to more detailed information.

african american baby girl being health checkup with stethoscope

Treatment Options for Congenital Heart Disease

Treatment options for congenital heart disease (CHD) include medications, interventional procedures, and surgery and hybrid procedures.

Adult CHD

CHD in adulthood

Children who are born with congenital heart defects grow up to be adults with heart issues. Due to continuing improvements in heart surgery and medical treatments, there are now more adults living with the heart conditions they were born with than children living with CHD. The transition from being a child to an adult with CHD can be complicated, but it’s essential to continue effective and comprehensive heart care throughout life.

Stories of hope & recovery

Christian, a young boy, poses on a bridge above a desert while on vacation.

Thirteen-year-old Christian Banks just returned from a 31-day cross-country trip where he and his family visited 16 national parks and monuments. Watching Christian hike Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah, you would never believe that only a few short months prior, he had battled heart valve disease.

Christian Banks patient of Dr. Dennis Kim